In this study, we investigated the antispasmodic and anthelmintic activities of crude aqueous methanolic extract of the plant. Dissertation. This work describes life history variation in Verbascum thapsus L. with latitude. Verbascum depending on nomenclatural choices) alongside species such as Verbascum nigrum (black or dark mullein), Verbascum lychnitis (white mullein) and Verbascum sinuatum (wavy-leaved mullein).[21][22][23][24]. [80] Native Americans and American colonists lined their shoes with leaves from the plant to keep out the cold. [78] The German Commission E describes uses of the plant for respiratory infections. JSTOR®, the JSTOR logo, JPASS®, Artstor®, Reveal Digital™ and ITHAKA® are registered trademarks of ITHAKA. The seed is said to have arrived on the North American continent in the dirt used as ballast in old sailing vessels. Verbascum. Since Huber-Morath's groups are not taxonomical, Mürbeck's treatment is the most current one available, as no study has yet sought to apply genetic or molecular data extensively to the genus. (× V. (1) Twenty-four natural populations of the monocarpic perennial Verbascum thapsus were mapped and studied over 3 years. ---Habitat---Verbascum thapsus (Linn. Pain (mainly ear) and deafness – This medicine cures pain mainly in the ears and pain that continues to the throat and neck. The BES's many activities include the publication of a range of scientific literature, including five internationally renowned journals, the organisation and sponsorship of a wide variety of meetings, the funding of numerous grant schemes, education work and policy work. There is substantial intraspecific variation in time of reproduction in most monocarpic plants. concerned solely with cultivated plants and agricultural ecosystems. Annual genotypes are favoured only in the long southern growing season and where survival is uncertain in the second year because of drought or competition. Common mullein, Verbascum thapsus, is a European plant that has made its way all over the world. The dried stems may persist into the following spring or even the next summer. Catarrhs, and colds, with periodical prosopalgia. The family name of this European native may have derived from the word scrofula, a disease that is now understood to be a form of tuberculosis . [3] Due to its morphological variation, V. thapsus has had a great many subspecies described. [25][29], V. thapsus is known by a variety of names. [37] Vernacular names include innumerable references to the plant's hairiness: "woolly mullein", "velvet mullein" or "blanket mullein",[32][38] "beggar's blanket", "Moses' blanket", "poor man's blanket", "Our Lady's blanket" or "old man's blanket",[31][34][39] and "feltwort", and so on ("flannel" is another common generic name). respiratory illnesses, including asthma and tuberculosis. While it can also grow in areas where some vegetation already exists, growth of the rosettes on bare soil is four to seven times more rapid. [27] Both subsp. All Rights Reserved. They include mullein thrips (Haplothrips verbasci),[67] Gymnaetron tetrum (whose larva consume the seeds) and the mullein moth (Cucullia verbasci). [13] Flowering lasts up to three months from early to late summer (June to August in northern Europe),[4] with flowering starting at the bottom of the spike and progressing irregularly upward; each flower opens for part of a day and only a few open at the same time around the stem. (8) The pattern of a short period of population growth, followed by a long period of slow decline of the buried seed pool, causes population growth rates to be dependent solely upon the number of seeds produced and independent of the time of their production. [9] It is now found commonly in all the states. The species' chromosome number is 2n = 36. [62], Seed of Verbascum thapsus has been recorded from part of the Cromer Forest Bed series and at West Wittering in Sussex from some parts of the Ipswichian interglacial layers. Of these, the most common is V. × semialbum Chaub. [19] Flowers are self-fecundating and protogynous (with female parts maturing first),[19] and will self-pollinate if they have not been pollinated by insects during the day. Geographic subdivisions for Verbascum thapsus: CA-FP, n SNE, MP : MAP CONTROLS 1. Search the history of over 446 billion web pages on the Internet. In such ecological contexts, it crowds out native herbs and grasses; its tendency to appear after forest fires also disturbs the normal ecological succession. [61] Additionally, deer and elk eat the leaves. of ecological principles and the research presented must transcend the limits The specific epithet thapsus had been first used by Theophrastus (as Θάψος, Thapsos)[14] for an unspecified herb from the Ancient Greek settlement of Thapsos, near modern Syracuse, Sicily,[14][15] though it is often assimilated to the ancient Tunisian city of Thapsus. Verbascum thapsus L. Verbascum thapsus L. is an accepted name This name is the accepted name of a species in the genus Verbascum (family Scrophulariaceae). [3] The flowering stem is solid and 2–2.5 cm (nearly an inch) across, and occasionally branched just below the inflorescence,[4] usually following damage. After flowering the entire plant usually dies at the end of its second year,[10] but some individuals, especially in the northern parts of the range, require a longer growth period and flower in their third year. (2) Vegetative individuals colonize a disturbed site for only a few growing seasons after disturbance. It is a common weedy plant that spreads by prolifically producing seeds, and has become invasive in temperate world regions. [31][53][74][75] The seeds contain several compounds (saponins, glycosides, coumarin, rotenone) that are toxic to fish, and have been widely used as piscicide for fishing. This drug cures deafness and all symptoms related to cold as well. [53] Seeds germinate almost solely in bare soil, at temperatures between 10 °C and 40 °C. Verbascum thapsus Second-year plant starting to flower, with a dead stem of the previous year, behind left Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Clade: Tracheophytes Clade: Angiosperms Clade: Eudicots Clade: Asterids Order: Lamiales Family: Scrophulariaceae Genus: Verbascum Species: V. thapsus Binomial name Verbascum thapsus Linnaeus Verbascum thapsus, the great mullein or common mullein, is a species of mullein native to Europe, northern Africa, and Asia, and introduced in the Americas and [7] It grows best in dry, sandy or gravelly soils, although it can grow in a variety of habitats, including banksides, meadows, roadsides, forest clearings and pastures. 178 p. Abstract. [31][34][41] The name "velvet dock" or "mullein dock" is also recorded, where "dock" is a British name applied to any broad-leaved plant. In Mürbeck's classification, V. thapsus is placed in section Bothrospermae subsect. [52], Great mullein is a biennial and generally requires winter dormancy before it can flower. At least five species of mullein have naturalize… Verbascum subsect. [17][20] Introduced American populations show much less variation. The Society was established in 1913 and has approximately 4,000 members worldwide, and membership is open to all with an interest in ecology. [18] European plants exhibit considerable phenotypical variation,[19] which has led to the plant acquiring many synonyms over the years. giganteum, the hairs are densely white tomentose, and lower leaves strongly decurrent. Verbascum thapsus (great mullein or common mullein) is a species of mullein native to Europe, northern Africa, and Asia, and introduced in the Americas and Australia. Most population differences in length of these periods were maintained in the common garden. Some of the more whimsical ones included "hig candlewick", "indian rag weed", "bullicks lungwort", "Adams-rod", "hare's-beard" and "ice-leaf". [27] In subsp. History has shown that Verbascum thapsus provides cough relief related to various . [53], Oil from the flowers was used against catarrhs, colics, earaches, frostbite, eczema and other external conditions. [50] In Canada, it is most common in the Maritime Provinces as well as southern Quebec, Ontario and British Columbia, with scattered populations in between. [5][43][44] In northern Europe, it grows from sea level up to 1,850 m altitude,[4] while in China it grows at 1,400–3,200 m altitude. 1984. The electronic version of Journal of Ecology Journal of Ecology was first published in 1913 to coincide with the Society's inaugural meeting and the portfolio has been expanded to include Journal of Animal Ecology (from 1932), Journal of Applied Ecology (from 1964), Functional Ecology (from 1987) and the online journal Methods in Ecology and Evolution (from 2010). [11], For the purpose of botanical nomenclature, Verbascum thapsus was first described by Carl Linnaeus in his 1753 Species Plantarum. [16], At the time, no type specimen was specified, as the practice only arose later, in the 19th century. (4) Delay of flowering until the third year was most common among northern genotypes and was a response to unfavourable growth conditions. [19], The taxonomy of Verbascum has not undergone any significant revision since Svanve Mürbeck's monographies in the 1930s, with the exception of the work of Arthur Huber-Morath, who used informal group in organizing the genus for the florae of Iran and Turkey to account for many intermediate species. Initial assessment . Banko, Paul C., Black, Jeffrey M. and Banko, Winston E. (1999). Fasciculata (or sect. Burning is ineffective, as it only creates new bare areas for seedlings to occupy. [63], Because it cannot compete with established plants, great mullein is no longer considered a serious agricultural weed and is easily crowded out in cultivation,[19] except in areas where vegetation is sparse to begin with, such as Californian semi-desertic areas of the eastern Sierra Nevada. [note 4][9][49] In 1839 it was already reported in Michigan and in 1876, in California. Diese Pflanze wird schon seit langem in der pflanzlichen Heilkunde (Phytotherapie) angewendet. Its small, yellow flowers are densely grouped on a tall stem, which grows from a large rosette of leaves. [12] Goats and chickens have also been proposed to control mullein. [1] It is a minor problem for most agricultural crops, since it is not a competitive species, being intolerant of shade from other plants and unable to survive tilling. [12] Ground herbicides, like tebuthiuron, are also effective, but recreate bare ground and require repeated application to prevent regrowth. California county polygons can be turned off and on in the layer control box. agricultural land use in forests may be visible both. [9] Useful insects are also hosted by great mullein, including predatory mites of the genera Galendromus, Typhlodromus and Amblyseius, the minute pirate bug Orius tristicolor[67] and the mullein plant bug (Campylomma verbasci). Journal of Ecology It is met with throughout Britain (except in the extreme north of Scotland) and also in Ireland and the Channel Islands, on hedge-banks, by roadsides and on waste … Read your article online and download the PDF from your email or your account. [48], In the United States it was imported very early in the 18th[note 3] century and cultivated for its medicinal and piscicide properties. (5) Annual genotypes occurred only in the southern part of the range, at both wet and dry sites. When a lectotype (type selected amongst original material) was designated, it was assigned to specimen 242.1 of Linnaeus' herbarium, the only V. thapsus specimen. 102 sabadilla, ii. Check out using a credit card or bank account with. I think they mean the word fruit botanically (fleshy seed case) and not as in anything edible by humans 12:37 Fri 18th Sep 2020. tamborine. The effects of former human occupation or. Access supplemental materials and multimedia. ii. Studies of plant communities, populations or individual species [40], Some names refer to the plant's size and shape: "shepherd's club(s)" or "staff", "Aaron's Rod" (a name it shares with a number of other plants with tall, yellow inflorescences), and a plethora of other "X's staff" and "X's rod". fungi or bacteria, providing they focus on the ecology of the plants. Mullein, any of the 360 species of the genus Verbascum (family Scrophulariaceae), large biennial or perennial herbs native to northern temperate regions, especially eastern Eurasia. History. It is a hairy biennial plant that can grow to 2 m tall or more. [35][36], In the 19th century it had well over 40 different common names in English alone. ©2000-2020 ITHAKA. (3) Many genetically maintained differences, related to latitude of origin were noted. [31][75] The Zuni people, however, use the plant in poultices of powdered root applied to sores, rashes and skin infections. The vision of the British Ecological Society is to advance ecology and make it count. Edward G. Reekie, in Plant Resource Allocation, 1997. The flowers are almost sessile, with very short pedicels (2 mm, 0.08 in). The genus name Verbascum comes from the Latin word barbascum which means "bearded", in reference to the hairy stamen filaments of some species. of case studies. p. 223) analyzed the flow- ers of Verbascum Thapsus, and obtained a yellow volatile oil, a fatty ...ii. [10] This dormancy is linked to starch degradation activated by low temperatures in the root, and gibberellin application bypasses this requirement. [31] Topical application of various V. thapsus-based preparations was recommended for the treatment of warts,[77] boils, carbuncles, hemorrhoids, and chilblains, amongst others. and V. × thapsi L. (syn. nigrum). Während die Homöopathie gezielt Wirkstoffe einsetzt, die ähnliche Symptome bei Gesunden hervorrufen wie bereits beim Betroffenen in seiner Erkrankung vorliegen, ist die Phytotherapie als generelle (unspezifische) Pflanzenheilkunde zu betra… A white-flowered form, V. thapsus f. candicans, is known to occur. The information rendered in the . Verbascum thapsus was used medicinally by some Native American tribes. [67] It is also a potential reservoir of the cucumber mosaic virus, Erysiphum cichoraceum (the cucurbit powdery mildew) and Texas root rot. For example, in the “biennial” Verbascum thapsus, reproduction may actually take place in the first, second, or third year of growth depending on latitude and successional status of the habitat (Reinartz, 1984a, b). Verbascum ist ein homöopathisches Mittel und der lateinische Name der Königskerze. [74] Leaves were smoked to attempt to treat lung ailments, a tradition that in America was rapidly transmitted to Native American peoples. [57] The seeds are generally too small for birds to feed on,[11] although the American goldfinch has been reported to consume them. ecosystems. However, the populations are long persistent as a dormant pool of seeds buried in the soil. [9], Flowers are pentamerous with (usually) five stamen, a five-lobed calyx tube and a five-petalled corolla, the latter bright yellow and an 1.5–3 cm (0.59–1.18 in) wide. The record derives from WCSP (in review) (data supplied on 2012-03-26) which reports it as an accepted name with original publication details: Sp. [5][6] This cover is particularly thick on the leaves, giving them a silvery appearance. Life history variation of common mullein (Verbascum thapsus) I. Latitudinal differences in population dynamics and timing of reproduction. The journal The USDA plant distribution maps show it in all the U.S. states and all but Arctic Canada. [1], A species of mullein in the family Scrophulariaceae native to Europe, northern Africa, and Asia, and introduced in the Americas and Australia, The lectotypification is usually attributed to Arthur Huber-Morath (1971). In more northerly climates, biennial and triennial plants are favoured because they can produce more seed in the short but predictable growing season. [73], Although long used in herbal medicine, no high-quality clinical research has been conducted on Verbascum thapsus as of 2018, and there are no drugs manufactured from its components. asperulum (Scrophulariaceae) two new records for the flora of Iran", "List of alien species recognized to be established in Japan or found in the Japanese wild (as of October 27, 2004)", "Common Mullein—the Roadside Torch Parade", "An Evolutionary Approach to Understanding the Biology of Invasions: Local Adaptation and General-Purpose Genotypes in the Weed Verbascum thapsus", "Habitat requirements of central European bees and the problems of partial habitats", "Maintenance Behavior of the American Goldfinch", "Numbers and types of arthropods overwintering on common mullein, Verbascum thapsus L. (Scrophulariaceae), in a central Washington fruit-growing region", "HOSTS – a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants", JLindquist.com: webpage with pictures of tall specimens, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Verbascum_thapsus&oldid=988929534, Plants used in traditional Native American medicine, Articles with Swedish-language sources (sv), Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Second-year plant starting to flower, with a dead stem of the previous year, behind left, This page was last edited on 16 November 2020, at 02:04. [10], Phytochemicals in Verbascum thapsus flowers and leaves include saponins, polysaccharides, mucilage, flavonoids, tannins, iridoid and lignin glycosides, and essential oils. Blattaria Verbascum densiflorum Verbascum lychnites Verbascum nigrum Verbascum phlomoides Verbascum speciosum logo, JPASS®, Artstor® Reveal... Elk eat the leaves are alternately arranged up the stem call it `` great mullein feed exclusively Verbascum... Before reproduction were negatively correlated with the percentage of the plant also hairy and was a plant... [ 19 ] [ 31 ] [ 45 ] [ 75 ] Glycyrrhizin compounds with bactericide effects in vitro isolated... Common among northern genotypes and was a Native plant anthelmintic activities of crude aqueous methanolic extract the! Differences, related to latitude of origin were noted its small, yellow flowers are densely on! Verbascum ] '' thought to be drunk have to verbascum thapsus history plant that produces a rosette of leaves in first. And chickens have also been reported in North America archive of the plant stalks in grease for as. The third year was most common among northern genotypes and was a response to unfavourable growth conditions colics,,. White-Flowered form, V. thapsus f. candicans, is a member of the British Society. Ear infections to diarrhea, this plant thapsus, and population dynamics common. And flower earlier than those from the flowers was used medicinally by some Native American.... On new grounds without human intervention because its seeds do not disperse very far although individuals are to... Pedicels ( 2 ) Vegetative individuals colonize a disturbed site for only a few growing seasons after.... Biennial plants ] '' thought to be drunk have to be this,! Up the stem 46 ] [ 75 ], seeds germinate almost solely in bare soil at... ] in 1839 it was already reported in Michigan and in 1876, in afternoon. Pflanze wird schon seit langem in der pflanzlichen Heilkunde ( Phytotherapie ) angewendet Verbascum ’ in LEO ’ s ⇔. Schon seit langem in der pflanzlichen Heilkunde ( Phytotherapie ) angewendet ( 4 ) of! Germinate in spring and summer 2 m tall or more reservoir for overwintering pests decades, up to 50 long! Without human intervention because its seeds do not disperse very far Pflanze wird seit. ) Vegetative individuals colonize a disturbed site for only a few growing seasons after disturbance be harmful other!, usually 1–2 m tall in der pflanzlichen Heilkunde ( Phytotherapie ) angewendet before can. Which are not currently available to screen readers its way all over world. ; Classification ; Records ; Literature ; Sequences ; Data Partners + Online Resources ``! Solely in bare soil, at temperatures between 10 °C and 40 °C, Jeffrey M. and banko, C.! Seeds germinate almost solely in bare soil, at temperatures between 10 °C and °C! ), have also been proposed to control mullein mid eighteenth century as the source a... Average periods before reproduction were negatively correlated with the percentage of the Scrophulariaceae figwort! 19Th century it had begun spreading so much that Amos Eaton thought it a! G. Reekie, in the layer control box can grow to 2 tall. The irritating hairs well over 40 different common names in English alone while year of growth 49... On a tall stem, which grows from a large rosette of.... Pflanzlichen Heilkunde ( Phytotherapie ) angewendet two principal kinds [ of Verbascum thapsus, and less common gordolobo... In 1876, in plant Resource Allocation, 1997 states and all symptoms related to cold as well as successional... Origin were noted can change the display of the plant popularly known as mullein common... Great many subspecies described word for `` soft '' tall or more followed! Maintain V. giganteum but sink V. crassifolium into synonymy call it `` great feed. 68 ] a study found V. thapsus f. candicans, is a common weedy plant has. Of common mullein ( Verbascum thapsus ( Scrophulariaceae ) Verbascum blattaria Verbascum densiflorum Verbascum lychnites Verbascum nigrum Verbascum phlomoides speciosum...
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