Hunt, Ann Arbor, MI: Association for Consumer Research, 151-159. 17, eds. M. Wallendorf and P. Anderson, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 303-307. M. Wallendorf and P. Anderson, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 303-307. Hoover, Robert J., Robert T. Green, and Joel Saegert (1978), "A Cross-National Study of Perceived Risk," Journal of Marketing, 42 (July), 102-108. 7, ed. Kahle, Lynn R., (1986), "The Nine Nations of North America and the Value Basis of Geographic Segmentation," Journal of Marketing, 50 (April), 37-47. Cross-cultural consumer analysis is defined as the effort to determine to what extent the consumers of two or … 10, eds. Anderson, Ronald and Jack Engledow (1977), "A Factor Analytic Comparison of U.S. and German Information Seekers," Journal of Consumer Research, 3 (March), 185-196. FIGURE 1 PUBLICATION TRENDS (NUMBER OF ARTICLES PER YEAR) Expanding to Other U.S. Subcultures From 1975 to 1985, cross-cultural research continued to expand both in terms of the number of articles published and the diversity of subcultures investigated. Second, an agreed upon set of terminology and definitions are desirable to advance the field of cross-cultural consumer behavior research. 14, eds. Finally, while most of the cross-cultural research dealt with industrialized cultures, articles that explicitly examined primitive (meaning nonindustrialized cultures indigenous to the geographical region) cultures are marked with "P" and will be discussed in a separate section. For instance, Douglas' (1976, 1979) descriptive study of family decision-making or women's life-styles in different countries without an attempt to explain results on the basis of cultural differences is an example of a cross-national analysis examining the differences between two countries. x��]�s�8�����(]� ��r����Φnk&w/��@K��C���\���� @��@yf*�ďF7�����������! Sexton, Donald E. (1972), "Black Buyer Behavior," Journal of Marketing, 36 (October), 36-39. O'Connor, P.J., Gary L. Sullivan, and Dana A. Pogorzelski (1985), "Cross Cultural Family Purchasing Decisions: A Literature Review," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. AU - Shavitt, Sharon. The third set of variables used frequently by researchers studying cross-cultural consumer behavior reflect the belief and value systems inherent in each cultural setting (see Figure 8). 22, edited by Frank Kardes and Mita Sujan , 461-484. 3 0 obj Caspar Krampe, Heinrich-Heine-University Wilkes, Robert E. and Humberto Valencia, (1985), "A Note on Generic Purchaser Generalizations and Subcultural Variations," Journal of Marketing, 49 (Summer), 114-120. © 2020 Association for Consumer Research, The Journal of the Association for Consumer Research (JACR). 14, eds. Other topics discussed in more than one article include advertising, gift-giving, family decision-making, brand loyalty, and information processing. The Cross-Cultural Consumption research project is funded by an $88,000 research grant from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada. U.S. Subcultural Research Trends Over time, not only has the number of subcultural studies increased, but the cultures being investigated have broadened in scope. With the focus of cultural implications on marketing and consumer behavior, the research scope was limited to major marketing publications: Journal of Consumer Research, Journal of Marketing Research, Advances in Consumer Research, and The Journal of Marketing. Cross-cultural and cross-national consumer research: psychology, behavior and beyond. Figure 2 illustrates the diverse subcultures investigated as well as the trend away from studying the African-American subculture to studies of the Hispanic subculture in the mid-1980s. In 1970, for example, the African American subculture was studied twice (as indicated by the letter "A"). Wallendorf, Melanie and Michael D. Reilly (1983b), "Ethnic Migration, Assimilation and Consumption," Journal of Consumer Research, 10 (December), 292-302. Hirschman (1985), for example, found similar consumption patterns among primitive cultures and U.S. subcultures. Hence, the future holds promise for building additional sources of cross-cultural knowledge rooted in the foundations already established. 1986), but cross-cultural consumer psychology research remains in its infancy (Shavitt, Lee, & Johnson, 2008) in several important domains. Fredric Jameson, New Literary History, 3 (Spring), 229-244. FIGURE 7 OPERATIONALIZATION OF CULTURE: ARTIFACTS Beliefs and Values as Indicants of Culture. Costa, Janeen Arnold (1990), "Toward an Understanding of Social and World Systemic Processes in the Spread of Consumer Culture: An Anthropological Case Study," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. In such cases, the articles were classified by where the sample was taken. Hirschman, Elizabeth C. (1985), "Primitive Aspects of Consumption in Modern American Society," Journal of Consumer Research, 12 (September), 142-154. 13, ed. Arndt Johan, Kjell Gronhang, Richard E. Homans, R. Neil Maddox, and Frederick E. May (1981), "Toward a Replication Tradition in Consumer Behavior: Cross-Cultural Replication of Bennett and Mandell's Study of the Learning-Information Seeking Hypothesis," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol 8, ed. AU - Lalwani, Ashok K. AU - Zhang, Jing DISCUSSION AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH While cross-cultural consumer behavior research has certainly progressed as a field throughout the twenty years of work examined in this review, there nonetheless are aspects of this research which warrant further attention if the field is to contribute to our understanding of consumer behavior. ", Journal of Marketing Research, 8 (November), 420-426. Arnold, Stephen J., Tae H. Oum, and Douglas J. Tigert (1983), "Determinant Attributes in Retail Patronage: Seasonal, Temporal, Regional, and International Comparisons," Journal of Marketing Research, 20 (May), 149-157. Each subculture is presented as a box. Sherry, John F. Jr. (1986), "The Cultural Perspective in Consumer Research," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. The second criterion was the inclusion of the term "culture" in the article title. Tan, Chin Tiong, Jim McCullough, and Jeannie Teoh (1987), "An Individual Analysis Approach to Cross Cultural Research," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. Stanton, John, Rajan Chandran, and Jeffrey Lowenhar (1981), "Consumerism in Developing CountriesCThe Brazilian Experience," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol 8, ed. Richard Lutz, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 568-572. 1999; Williams and Aaker 2002). (1989), "Current Theory and Research on Cross-Cultural Factors in Consumer Behavior," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. Folkes, Valerie S. (1988), "Recent Attribution Research in Consumer Behavior: A Review and New Directions," Journal of Consumer Research, 14 (March), 548-565. 1999; Williams and Aaker 2002). Stayman, Douglas M. and Rohit Deshpande (1989), "Situational Ethnicity and Consumer Behavior," Journal of Consumer Research, 16 (September), 361-371. The research produced was largely descriptive. 5, ed. If you would like to join the Consumer Psychology & Cross-Cultural Research SIG, please contact Dr Nina Michaelidou. Marvin Goldberg, Gerald Gorn and Richard W. Pollay, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 826-832. 10, eds. 13, ed. Hence, language serves various functions in a cultural context. Hirschman (1985), for example, found similar consumption patterns among primitive cultures and U.S. subcultures. The difference in research focus may imply that American researchers assume more cultural similarities with Western culture counterparts than Oriental countries. Subcultural research has become increasingly sophisticated with comparison of more diverse groups. H.K. The publication trend corresponds with the increased number of anthropological citations as noted by Leong (1989) in his examinations of the Journal of Consumer Research from 1974-1988. A cross-cultural study, therefore, examines data and explains results on the basis of cultural meaning, not national boundaries. Once researchers began holding income constant, racial differences seemed to disappear as well as publication opportunities. Dawson, Scott and Gary Bamossy (1990), "Isolating the Effect of Non-Economic Factors on the Development of a Consumer Culture: A Comparison of Materialism in the Netherlands and the United States," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. During the next decades, as marketers enter new international markets, an understanding of how culture influences consumer behavior will be crucial for both managers and consumer researchers. Saegert, Joel, Robert J. Hoover, and Marye Tharp Hilger (1985), "Characteristics of Mexican American Consumers," Journal of Consumer Research, 12 (June), 104-109. McCracken, Grant (1989), "Who is the Celebrity Endorser? M. Wallendorf and P. Anderson, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 574. Bush, Ronald F., Robert F. Gwinner, and Paul J. Solomon (1974), "White Consumer Sales Response to Black Models," Journal of Marketing, 38 (April), 25-29. H.K. Sexton, Donald E. (1971), "Comparing the Cost of Food to Blacks and to WhitesCA Survey," Journal of Marketing, 35 (July), 40-46. <>>> As reflected in demographic and sociological changes within the U.S., the Hispanic subculture was frequently topic for research as shown in Figure 2. Gilly, Mary C. (1988), "Sex Roles in Advertising: A Comparison of Television Advertisements in Australia, Mexico, and the United States," Journal of Marketing, 52 (April), 75-85. Clarke and Soutar (1982) cite a "greater orientation to convenience and labor-saving devices in North America" (p. 459). McAlister, Leigh and Edgar Pessemier (1982), "Variety Seeking Behavior: An Interdisciplinary Review," Journal of Consumer Research, 9 (December), 311-322. 12, eds. Blacks, Italians, WASPs, and Jews with those of non-industrialized cultures. Sudman, Seymour (1985), "Efficient Screening Methods for the Sampling of Geographically Clustered Populations," Journal of Marketing Research, 22 (February), 20-29. Hawes, Douglass K., Sigmund Gronmo, and John Arndt (1978), "Shopping and Leisure Time: Some Preliminary Cross-Cultural Comparisons of Time-Budget Expenditures," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. Yet initial findings suggest that cross-culturally, a fatalistic approach to life may affect behavioral intentions which in turn influence attitudes towards brand loyalty and perceived risk (Cote and Tansuhaj 1989; Gentry, Tansuhaj, Manzer, and John 1988; Mehta and Belk 1991; Saegert, Hoover, and Tharp 1985; Stanton, Chandran, and Lowenhar 1981). Kent Monroe, Ann Arbor, MI: Association for Consumer Research, 718-722. 17, eds. Hills, Gerald E., Donald H. Granbois, and James M. Patterson (1973), "Black Consumer Perceptions of Food Store Attributes," Journal of Marketing, 37 (April), 47-57. Much research on cross-cultural consumer. ", Journal of Marketing Research, 8 (November), 420-426. Specifically, consumer research in demographics, psychographics, decision making, and the diffusion of innovation is examined from the perspective of extending these areas of study to the Indian market. Sexton, Donald E. (1972), "Black Buyer Behavior," Journal of Marketing, 36 (October), 36-39. Belk, Russell W. and Wendy J. Bryce (1986), "Materialism and Individual Determinism in U.S. and Japanese Print and Television Advertising," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. Subcultural research has become increasingly sophisticated with comparison of more diverse groups. Richard Lutz, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 568-572. Swagler, Roger M. (1977), "Information Patterns in Indigenous African Markets: A Lesson in Consumer Performance," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. 10, eds. in Advances in Consumer Behavior, Vol. Although language may prove to be a poor segmentation variable, language preference is still the predominant determinant of acculturation in cross-cultural psychology literature and research suggests it may be instrumental in anticipating and encouraging diffusion of innovations among different cultures (Takada and Jain 1991). Belk, Russell W., (1984), "Cultural and Historical Differences in Concepts of Self and Their Effects on Attitudes Toward Having and Giving," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. Cross-cultural consumer research is increasingly important and essential for the current globalized marketplace. King, and L. Ring (1980), "Fashion Involvement: A Cross-Cultural Comparative Analysis," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. AU - Lalwani, Ashok K. AU - Zhang, Jing 14, eds. Hirschman (1985), for example, examined similarities of the consumption patterns of U.S. Douglas, Susan P. and Christine D. Urban (1977), "Life-Style Analysis to Profile Women in International Markets," Journal of Marketing, 41 (July), 46-54. The Cross-Cultural Consumption research project is funded by an $88,000 research grant from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada. Belk, Russell W. and Wendy J. Bryce (1986), "Materialism and Individual Determinism in U.S. and Japanese Print and Television Advertising," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. Material possessions and tangible goods, including food, represented another avenue pursued by consumer researchers to make operational definitions of the abstract culture concept more concrete. Yet the focus on cultural similarities and theoretical explanations may ultimately transform the culturally bound theories in consumer behavior to a field with generalizable theories. Journal of Marketing, 45 (Spring), 98-109. McCullough, James, Chin Tiong Tan, and John Wong (1986), "Effects of Stereotyping in Cross Cultural Research: Are the Chinese Really Chinese?" RESULTS Publication Trends Cross-cultural research has been steadily increasing since 1970, both in terms of the number of studies published (see Figure 1) and with respect to the countries explored (see Figures 3 - 5). The comprehensive literature review of cross-cultural consumer behavior research undertaken in this paper could advance the consumer behavior discipline in several ways. 11, ed. 2 ed. Consumer Behavior Topics under Cross-Cultural Examination. 5, ed. 7, ed. William D. Perreault, Atlanta, GA: Association for Consumer Research, 297-301. Reilly, Michael and Melanie Wallendorf (1987), "A Comparison of Group Differences in Food Consumption Using Household Refuse," Journal of Consumer Research, 14 (September), 289-294. Glaser, Barney G. and Anselm Strauss (1967), The Discovery of Grounded Theory, Chicago, IL: Aldine. OPERATIONALIZATION OF CULTURE: BELIEFS AND VALUES. and Jan C. Reuijl (1985), "Advertising and Industry Sales: An Empirical Study of the West German Cigarette Market," Journal of Marketing, 49 (Fall), 92-98. Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 629-632. Jolibert, Alain J.P. and Carlos Fernandez-Moreno (1983), "A Comparison of French and Mexican Gift Giving Practices," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. Researchers investigating topics such as food purchasing behavior, black/white reaction to integrated advertisements, and African-American shopping behavior, for example, noted similarities and differences between the two ethnic groups, but neglected to take the next step in explaining the behavior they cited. cross-cultural and cross-national consumer research by Newton et al. Costa, Janeen Arnold (1989), "On Display: Social and Cultural Dimensions of Consumer Behavior in the Greek Saloni," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. Thomas Kinnear, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research 753-760. Saegert, Joel, Eleanor Young, and Merry Mayne Saegert (1978), "Fad Food Use Among Anglo- and Mexican-Americans: An Example of Research in Consumer Behavior and Home Economics," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol.5, ed. The majority of cultures or countries investigated are located in the Pacific Rim or Europe. Globalization leads to a need to understand consumer behavior across national boundaries. Skill: Concept. (1974), "Family Buying Decisions: A Cross-Cultural Perspective," Journal of Marketing Research, 11 (August), 295-302. Second, an agreed upon set of terminology and definitions are desirable to advance the field of cross-cultural consumer behavior research. 1, eds. Sherry, John F. Jr. (1986), "The Cultural Perspective in Consumer Research," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. First, it identifies areas needing additional research. Marvin Goldberg, Gerald Gorn and Richard W. Pollay, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 186-192. The study of goods and material possessions is closely linked to the concept of materialism proposed by Belk and Bryce (1986) as "the tendency to view possessions as the primary sources of satisfaction and dissatisfaction" (p. 568). Review systematically cross-cultural Consumer behavior may no longer hold marvin Goldberg, Gerald Gorn, and Jews with of. Immigrant Consumer acculturation, '' Journal of Marketing Research? particular Consumer topic as to!, language offers an interpretative code or schema for organizing and presenting the world, `` current and. There needs to be appropriate for a longitudinal manner impacts upon Consumer behavior, cultural that... And Richard r. 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